Mulinum crassifolium Phil. (Apiaceae) is an endemic shrub from Chile commonly used as infusion in traditional medicine to treat diabetes, bronchial and intestinal disorders and stomach ailments, including ulcers. From the EtOAc extract of this plant, the new mulinane-type diterpenoids 3 and 5 were isolated along with three known diterpenoids. The gastroprotective effect of the infusion of the plant was assayed to support the traditional use and a fast HPLC analysis using high resolution techniques was performed to identify the bioactive constituents. The EtOAc extract and the edible infusion showed gastroprotective effect at 100 mg/kg in the HCl/EtOH induced gastric ulcer model in mice, reducing lesions by 33% and 74%, respectively. Finally, a metabolomic profiling based on UHPLC-ESI-MS/HRMS of the edible infusion was performed and thirty-five compounds were tentatively identified including quercetin, caffeic acid, apigenine glucoside, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acids, and caffeoylquinic acids, which have been associated previously with gastroprotective and antiulcer properties. This scientific evidence can support the contribution of polyphenols in the gastroprotective activity of the edible infusion of this plant, and can validate at least in part, its ethnopharmacological use.