Aims: Determine a relationship between the neuroprotective activity and the antioxidant capacity of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in a model of Glu excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Materials and methods: Was evaluated several alkaloidal fractions isolated from Amaryllidaceae species, a family known to contain neuroprotective alkaloids, in a model of Glu excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. In addition, several mechanisms of antioxidant activity were used, and a theoretical study of the antioxidants was performed. Key findings: The results of this study suggest that a possible neuroprotective mode of action of the alkaloidal fractions of Eucharis bonplandii (Kunth) Traub bulbs, Eucharis caucana Meerow bulbs, and Clivia miniata Regel leaves, is through their antioxidant activity and ability to stabilize free radicals generated from an excitotoxic process mediated by Glu. The chemical structure characterization and antioxidant activity of the fractions suggest that the phenol and enol groups in the structures of the alkaloids are critical for the stabilization of ROS and RNS. Additionally, the pair of free electrons on the N is spatially close to a hydroxyl group, which benefits the cleavage of this group and, consequently, the stabilization of the generated O[rad]. Significance: The versatility of the structures of the studied Amaryllidaceae alkaloids suggests that they have potential as neuroprotective agents against an oxidative stimulus.